With elongation of average human life, problem such as bone embrittlement and osteoporosis call for quick solution and the expectation for artificial biomaterials heightens. Many ceramics widely used as artificial biomaterials are limited by their poor reliability characteristics. A CeO2 stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline (Ce-TZP) matrix incorporating nanometer sized Al2O3 particles within the zirconia grains (Ce-TZP/Al2O3) was recently developed. This material experienced significant improvements in both fracture toughness and strength above the standard mechanical performance of monolithic zirconia. In this paper, we performed a macro/microscopic fracture mechanics assessment of this developed Ce-TZP/Al2O3 nanocomposite, in comparison with a 3 mol% Y-TZP according to advanced in situ confocal Raman spectroscopy techniques.