The effects of dental grinding and sandblasting on ageing and fatigue behaviour of pressure less sintered biomedical grade Y-TZP ceramics were investigated. Disc-shaped specimens were sintered to high density for subsequent surface treatment and testing. Accelerated aging experiments by autoclaving in artificial saliva were performed under isothermal conditions at 1340C. The amount of monoclinic zirconia in the ground and sandblasted specimens was < 5% and about 15 %, respectively and the corresponding strength values were 920 MPa and 1290 MPa. After autoclaving for 24 hours, the amount of transformed monoclinic zirconia in as-sintered material was increased to 15 %, resulting in about 10% strength reduction. In contrast, no strength reduction was observed with the ground and sandblasted specimens subjected to prolonged ageing. At any ageing condition, the highest survival rate during mechanical fatigue testing was observed with the sandblasted samples and the lowest with the ground samples. The strength of the surviving specimens tested in air corresponded well to the mean flexural strength of the particular group before fatigue testing, whereas lower survival strength values and a larger variability in strength were obtained with specimens that were subjected to prolonged accelerated ageing prior to mechanical fatigue testing in artificial saliva.