There is little information concerning the physical properties of various commercialized water-based temporary filling materials. In this study, the setting characteristics of 5 water-based temporary filling cements, i.e., Caviton, HY-seal, Lumicon, Cavit-G, and Cavit-W, were examined. Reinforced plastic pipes were filled with the test materials, and the specimens were then immersed in distilled water at 37°C. Setting time of each specimen was determined by a penetration test using a Vicat penetrometer; and setting layer depth was measured with micrometer calipers. Cavit-W exhibited the fastest setting time, whereas Caviton and HY-seal demonstrated the slowest setting time. These results indicate that the setting properties of these materials used in this study were significantly different for each material, which showed some changes on the surface and the internal part after the start of water absorption.