Friction and wear tests of Al2O3 and SiC were conducted from room temperature to 1200°C both in air and in vacuum. Results show that the wear mechanism of Al2O3 is dominated by micro fracture, debris abrasive and delamination at temperatures below 600 °C, while is controlled by plastic deformation and recrystallization among 600~1200 °C, resulting in an obvious decrease of wear loss. The wear rate and surface microstructure of SiC are closely depending on the testing temperature, atmosphere and contact pressure. Oxidation of SiC at elevated temperatures plays important role on the wear rate. Self lubrication of both Al2O3 and SiC at high temperatures was observed, which is mainly depending on the formation of a specific surface layer composed of nano-particles or very thin glassy film.