Porous hydroxyapatite (HA) bioceramic matrix with interconnected ducts was obtained using a porogen burnout technique at 1200°C. The HA/silk fibroin (SF) composite scaffolds were developed with the SF sponges formed inside the pores and ducts of the bioceramics by first introducing HA/SF slurries into the pores and ducts followed by a freeze-drying process. Phase components and morphology of materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. Porosity was measured by Archimedean method. Compressive strength was also measured. The simulated body fluids (SBF) experiments were conducted to evaluate bioactivity. The results show that hydroxyapatite is the main phase compositions after sintering at 1200°C. The porosity of composite scaffolds reaches 70%~80%. The sizes of pores and ducts of HA matrix range from 150μm to 400μm and the pore sizes of SF sponges formed inside the macroporous structure of bioceramics are approximately 100μm,a structure favorable for bone tissue in-growth. The compressive strength of the composite scaffolds is greatly improved in comparison with that of HA matrix. In the SBF tests, a layer of randomly oriented apatite crystals form on the scaffold surface after sample immersion in SBF. The cell culture experiments show that the osteoblast cells are attached and proliferated on the surface of the composite scaffold, which suggest good bioactivity and cellular compatibility of the composite material.