Molybdate conversion coatings were prepared on the anodized surfaces of aluminum alloy substrates, and the corrosion resistance in 3.5% NaCl solution was also investigated. The effects of the main parameters on the quality of the coatings were discussed. The morphology and chemical composition of the conversion coatings was examined by SEM and EDS. SEM observation showed that the coatings were composed of small sheet grains with tiny cracks between them. EDS analysis showed that the main element of the coatings was molybdenum. The results of polarization curve showed that the coatings effectively inhabited the pitting corrosion of aluminum alloy substrates. In the end the possible conversion mechanism was discussed.