Ultrasonic vibration cutting experiments have been carried out for the machining of the plasma-sprayed Al2O3 coatings. The optimized value of V/Vc for the vibration cutting was obtained by a series of tests. The comparing experiments of the ultrasonic vibration cutting and the traditional cutting for the machining of the plasma-sprayed Al2O3 coatings by the cube nitride boride (CBN) and YC09 (hard alloy) lathe tools have been executed. The results indicate that the valid cutting time for the vibration cutting is 3-4 times longer than that for the traditional cutting, at the same time, the surface roughness values of the coatings machined by the vibration cutting are less than that machined by the traditional cutting. CBN and YC09 have been optimized as the candidates to machine the Al2O3 coatings through a series of vibration cutting tests carried out on the lathe tools of CBN and three hard alloys of YC09, YH3 and YGHT. The cutting parameters, such as V, aP and f, for the vibration cutting of the Al2O3 coatings by CBN and YC09 were obtained through the orthogonal tests and regression analysis. The obtained parameters have been utilized to machine the plasma-sprayed Al2O3 coatings for validation, and the results indicate that the ultrasonic vibration cutting is a competitive method to machine the plasma-sprayed Al2O3 coatings.