SiO2 is a kind of widely used dielectric material in ULSI and its chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) is one of the most difficult processes. In this paper, the CMP mechanism and the effect of abrasive on SiO2 dielectric were analyzed; the different factors of affecting the CMP were analyzed. A kind of organic alkali was chosen to act as the pH regulator and complexation agent to enhance the chemical effect. The silica sol was selected as abrasive to realize no contamination, low viscidity, proper hardness and easy to clean. The effect of different concentration of abrasive on the removal rate and surface performance were studied. Further more the influence of polishing slurry flow and surfactant on removal rate were analyzed. The final planarization was realized.