Hardness, elastic modulus and scratch resistance of single silicon wafer are measured by nanoindentation and nanoscratching using a nanoindenter. Fracture toughness is measured by indentation using a Vickers indenter. The results show that the hardness and elastic modulus at a peak indentation depth of 100 nm are 12.6 and 166.5 GPa respectively. These values reflect the properties of the silicon wafer, the bulk material. The fracture toughness value of the silicon wafer is 0.74 Mpa·m1/2. The material removal mechanisms are seen to be directly related to the normal force on the tip. The critical load and scratch depth estimated from the scratch depth profile after the scratching and the friction profile are 138.64 mN and 54.63 nm respectively. If the load and scratch depth are under the critical values, the silicon wafer will undergo plastic flow rather than fracture. The critical scratch depth is different from that calculated from the formula of critical-depth-of-cut described by Bifnao et al and some reasons are given.