A novel scanning probe measurement system has been developed to achieve precise profile measurements of micro-aspheric surfaces. The system consists of a scanning stage (a spindle and a linear slide) and a sensor unit. The sensor unit consists of a ring artifact, two capacitance sensors and a contact-mode displacement sensor. The two capacitance sensors scan the surface of the ring artifact to measure and compensate the error motions of the scanning stage while the contact-mode displacement sensor scans the surface of a micro-aspheric. In this paper, a new contact-mode displacement sensor that has a small contact force of less than 2.3 mN and a stable output has been developed. After investigating the fundamental performance of the contact-mode displacement sensor, the sensor has been applied to the micro-aspheric surface profile measurement system. The effectiveness of the measurement system has been verified by the measurement results.