In this research, a novel high-precision pitch artifact using balls is proposed for calibration of pitch measuring instruments. This pitch artifact is composed of the combination and the alignment of balls and cylinders on a plane. Balls, cylinders and planes are possible to be manufactured with several-ten-nanometer-order accuracy. Therefore, this artifact can accomplish high dimensional accuracy. In addition, manufacturing of this artifact is not difficult because time-consuming special process is not needed. In this report, the concept, structure and feature of this pitch artifact are proposed and theoretical analysis is carried out.