Biomaterials for treatment of bone defects have been studied for a long time. Alloplastic materials, mainly hydroxyapatite (HA), are under intense investigation due to its biocompatibility and osteoconductive properties. The HA can be modified by the incorporation of bivalent cations as Zn2+ known as a positive effectors for bone repair. The purpose of this study was to evaluate comparatively the effectiveness of 5% zinc-containing hydroxyapatite (ZnHA) in the treatment of critical size defect (CSD) in rat’s calvaria. CSD (8mm diameter) created in the skull of forty-five Wistar rats were filled with autogenous bone, HA and ZnHA. Skulls harvested after 30, 90 and 180 days were submitted to histological processing for paraffin embedding. Sections of 5 µm-thick stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) allowed histomorphometric analysis. The area of neoformed bone increased (p<0.001) from 30 to 180 days irrespective to treatment groups. ZnHA and the control group showed a large at 180 days but no significant difference compared to HA. Therefore, we concluded that both biomaterials are biocompatibles and osteoconductors, promoting new bone formation and apposition of bone on the surface throughout the periods and the addition of zinc improved the osteogenesis.