The aim of this study was verify the biological efficacy of the use of a xenograft for bone loss therapy. Blood clot, particulate autogenous bone or anorganic bovine xenograft filled critical size defects (CSD) in rat calvaria (8mm diameter). After 0, 7, 30 and 90 days the animals were killed and macroscopic, radiographic and histopathological analysis were conducted. Although no treatment promoted the total closure of bone defect, autogenous bone group had better bone repair after 90 days, followed by xenograft group that exhibited direct bone neoformation onto, and around, the particles confirming its osteoconductivity. In conclusion, the xenograft tested in vivo showed biocompatibility, biodegradability and osteoconductive properties in rat calvaria CSD.