In this paper, preparation and mechanical properties of Alite-calcium barium sulphoaluminate (Alite-C2.75B1.25A3 ) cement concrete were studied. The results showed the compressive strength of Alite-C2.75B1.25A3 cement concrete was much higher than that of Portland cement concrete, especially the early-age compressive strength. The 24-hour compressive strength of Alite-C2.75B1.25A3 cement concrete could reach 22.81Mpa for w/c=0.45, 17.29Mpa for w/c=0.50 and 17.04Mpa for w/c=0.55 respectively. They were about 50 to 65 percent higher than those of Portland cement concrete. The 7-day compressive strength could reach about 80 to 90 percent of 28-day strength for Alite-C2.75B1.25A3 cement concrete. The 28-day strength could reach 55.85Mpa for w/c=0.45, 48.01Mpa for w/c=0.50 and 44.21Mpa for w/c=0.55 respectively. The results of SEM showed the interfaces between the hardened cement paste and aggregates in Alite-C2.75B1.25A3 cement concrete were more compact than those in Portland cement concrete. Distribution of particulate bulk was more uniformity and a majority of clinker particles was wrapped by hydrated gel in Alite-C2.75B1.25A3 concrete. And, the structure of Alite-C2.75B1.25A3 cement concrete was much more compact than that of Portland cement concrete.