This paper studied rheological properties of fresh cement pastes and adsorption behavior of superplasticizers which are FDN-5R, a type of naphthalene sulfonic acid based condensate, 3350, a type of polycarboxylate superplasticizer, by R/S-SST rheometer and UV Visible Spectrometer. Results show that superplasticizers can reduce the flocculation structure of fresh cement paste obviously and reduce the yield stress and apparent viscosity. The turn of thixotropic property is: blank sample > FDN-5R > 3350, especially the sample with 3350’s curve of upward and downward almost match together and the thixotropic property drives to zero. Shearing stress, apparent viscosity and thixotropic property are decreased, adsorption capacity is higher by the superplasticizer adding. The bigger effectual adsorption, the better dispersive action of flocculation and rheological properties of fresh cement pastes. Therefore, we can understand the effect mechanism and properties of superplasticizer much better by combining the molecular structure, adsorption capacity, dispersive action and rheological properties.