For ultraprecision machine tool of the next generation, two novel positioning devices are invented by the authors. The first positioning device of nanometer and sub-nanometer resolution with long stroke is the Twist-roller Friction Drive (TFD). For long stroke with 1nm of positioning resolution, the TFD is driven by a servomotor, and it is driven by a piezoelectric actuator for short stroke with 0.1nm of positioning resolution. The second positioning device of short stroke picometer resolution is an active aerostatic guideway employing the Active Inherent Restrictor (AIR). The stroke of the active aerostatic guideway is in the order of 0.1μm, however, the positioning resolution can be 50pm. These positioning devices are integrated into a tri-mode positioning system and each positioning mode is controlled by a numerical control system.