The environmental impact on human health is of increasing concern mainly due to the complex interaction between various hazardous factors both on environment and within human organism. The aim of this paper is to investigate possible correlations between the quality parameters of drinking water and the formation of uroliths. The constituents of some kidney calculi sampled after surgery from 90 patients coming from the Horezu – Valcea area have been analysed, this region being identified as having the most cases of kidney lithiasis and that might be related with hard drinking waters. The study has been made during the period of 2004 – 2008. Physical – chemical methods specific for characterization of the quality of drinking waters have been used in parallel with determination of composition and structural characterization by X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis TG, ATD, FT-IR spectroscopy, optical microscopy. Four groups of uroliths have been identified: multiphase oxalate and urate, phosphate (hydroxiapatite) and carbonate, monohydrated oxalate (whewellite), and urate stones. Such research might be useful, from both chemical and biochemical point of view, for identifying the conditions that cause the inhibition of the processes related to kidney calculi formation.