The polishing experiment of the ZrO2 toughed Al2O3 nano-ceramics is carried on by the ultrasonic installment manufactured according to the local resonance theory. Using the white light interferometer, SEM and so on to observe the superficial microstructure of nano-ceramics after polishing under the same parameter and component condition, the surface layer occurred mainly in material powdering and crystal grain fragmentation. The subsurface layer deformed also plastically operated by crystal lattice distortion and the crystal boundary slipping. The microscopic distortion is operated by the coordinated mechanism, including intragranular dislocation in crystal strengthened structures. The nano-particles along the grain boundaries reduce expanding of cracks, which led the materials favorable finished surface.