Based on reciprocating electroplated diamond wire saw slicing single crystal silicon experiments, a bonded interface sectioning technique was used to measure the silicon subsurface damage (SSD) depth, and the influences of wire saw speed and feed speed on silicon SSD were studied. Moreover, based on the indentation fracture mechanics (IFM) theory, a theoretical model of relationship between SSD and surface roughness (SR) was established for predicting the SSD depth by measuring the SR. The results indicate that SSD depth decreases with the wire saw speed increase and feed speed decrease, within the range of experimental technical parameters. There exists monotone increasing non-linear correlation between SSD depth and SR (Rz) in wire saw slicing single crystal silicon, that is, SSD－SR+χSR3/4. And the experimental measure values coincide with the theoretical prediction values comparatively, therefore, the theoretical model can be used for predicting SSD depth rapidly, expediently and accurately.