Study on the effect of the surface manufacturing quality (roughness) to the friction between the surfaces. Based on the plastic theory of mechanism-based strain gradient (MSG) of the micro-plastic-mechanics and the contact theory, the theoretical model of the coefficient of friction between the rough surfaces and the non-linear finite element model between the grinding samples were established. Moreover, the surface stress distribution and the coefficient of friction were obtained through the sub-structure finite element method. The established model of static friction theoretical model and the accuracy of the finite element model were verified through comparing with the result of the static friction experiments between the grinding samples with different surface manufacturing quality. The study in the paper is important to the study on the surface friction mechanism.