The use of gneiss as aggregates might help meet the pavement constructing demands. However, the study of the pavement performances of gneiss asphalt mixture is few. In this paper, the microstructure of gneiss aggregate was studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). And the pavement performances of gneiss asphalt mixture with different improving measure were characterized by means of Indirect Tensile Strength Test and Four-Point Bending Fatigue Test. Gneiss is flaky, surface texture rougher and imporosity characteristic in microstructure, resulting to its adhesion and processing property are poor. Experiment results indicate that the use of hydrated lime replacing limestone power partly in filler can improve pavement properties of the gneiss asphalt mixtures distinctly.