The defect initiation and crack propagation in wheel may result in the damage of the railway vehicle or derailment. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the characteristics of the wheel tread. In the present paper, the characteristics of wheel tread based on contact positions, running distance and brake pattern are evaluated. To evaluate the damage for railway wheels, the measurement for the replication of wheel surface is carried out. The result shows that the damaged wheel tread is remarkably depended on the contact positions between wheel and rail. It should be noted that the replication test can be applied in new evaluation method of wheel damage.