The waterproof-adhesive layer plays an important role in cement concrete bridge pavement. The adhesive strength of the layer between the cement concrete deck and the asphalt pavement may affect the bridge’s service performance directly. In the study, the direct shearing-strength experiment between the asphalt pavement, waterproof adhesive layer and the cement concrete deck was done in a laboratory. Some testing parameters were considered, including different loading speed, surface processing mode of the cement concrete deck and adhesive materials. The result shows that the coarser the surface of the cement concrete deck is, the larger the shearing strength of the adhesive material is at the same temperature. The loading speed of the shearing test has important effect on the shearing strength. The rapid loading speed can cause high shearing strength. Especially, the experiment datum indicates that the relationship between the loading speed of the test and the shearing strength can be described using the power exponent. Ultimately, the study is aimed at providing bridge engineers with an efficient testing method that attempts to increase the prediction accuracy of adhesive strength for more reliable design.