This review aims at reporting on very recent developments in the synthesis, properties and (future) applications of rubber nanocomposites. Nanocomposites are the materials for the future, which have improved mechanical properties. Reinforcement is especially important for the application of elastomeric materials because the mechanical strength of unfilled elastomers is generally poor. Commonly isometric fillers like carbon black or fumed silica are used for reinforcing elastomers.Rubber nanocomposites play an important role in engineering, construction and aerospace applications. This new family of materials exhibit enhanced properties at very low filler level, usually ≤ 5 wt %. Rubber nanocomposites exhibit very good Young’s modulus , storage modulus, thermal stability , gas barrier properties and flame retardancy.