In this paper, the micro-topography of the milled surface and chips are investigated, and the milling mechanisms of ceramics are analyzed. The results show that there are many deep and flat craters due to material fractures on the milled surface of Al2O3 ceramics and evidence of plastic flow is also observed around the craters. The milled surface of Si3N4 ceramics is smooth and even, and the trace of plastic flow can be observed. The abrasives after milling are very different from those before milling, which reflects the strong impact between abrasives and materials during the milling process. It is shown that the dominant milling mechanisms of ceramics are crack and exfoliating due to brittle fracture and plastic distortion according to the form of the chips.