Solid state sintered silicon carbide (S-SiC) ceramic is one of the top optical materials for high space reliability and other excellent properties. Two microstructures were produced by sintering under different conditions. The effects of microstructure on removal rates of SiC ceramics during polishing processes were studied. The material removal mechanisms during polishing were analysed and modeled. With the increase of the aspect ratio and grain diameter size during polishing, grain pull-out is more difficult in elongated grains than in exquiaxed grains. The SiC ceramic with high hardness has high removal resistance leading to get bad surface quality under the same mechanical procedure. The samples with elongated microstructure have low hardness and surface toughness.