Electrochemical methods and electrowinning of titanium have been promoted, unsuccessfully, for many years as a replacement for the current Kroll process, which has not achieved the same economies of scale as other light metals (eg. Al, Mg) have. One such method is the direct electrochemical reduction of titanium dioxide, which encompasses a range of processes involving the electrolysis of a molten salt and the subsequent reduction of titanium via the metal of the salt cation. Norsk Titanium AS, in a collaboration with Norsk Hydro, SINTEF, and NTNU through a Norwegian Research Council grant, has been actively involved in the development of such a process and the focus of this presentation is to give a summary of the research activities. Particular emphasis will be given to the fundamental reactions underlying the process.