The national metrology, standards and conformity assessment system in Ukraine is still largely based on the state-controlled Soviet system and differ significantly in form and function from the national standards and conformity assessment systems (or the national quality infrastructure) found in countries of the European Union and of the OECD. While in the latter group of countries the vast majority of national standards are of a voluntary nature and the national quality infrastructure operates as a highly-decentralized network of public and private institutions, the Ukrainian model emphasizes technical regulations (or mandatory standards) and is dominated by highly-centralized government institutions. Recent accession of Ukraine into WTO and commitment for integration into the European Union (EU) motivated an assessment of its national quality infrastructure (metrology, standards and conformity assessment). The importance of metrology and metrology policy development is discussed to support the regulatory environment. The paper discusses main findings of the assessment developed in cooperation between the World Bank and the IFC Ukraine Business Enabling Environment Project.