The present chapter deals with the difficult task of giving a brief survey of the synthetic routes employed to prepare materials with characteristic features on the nanometer scale. Definitions and general concepts regarding nanostructured and nanometer-sized materials are shortly tackled in the introductory part, which is followed by an overview of the most important approaches developed to synthesize such materials. No attempt is made to create a comprehensive and detailed synopsis of the experimental methods currently available. Rather, attention is focused on a selected number of general methodologies, the choice of which can be usually motivated by a mix of historical perspective, scientific significance and technological potential. So-called “top-down” approaches are discussed first, whereas the second part of the chapter is devoted to “bottom-up” ones. The former group includes mechanical processing, melt quenching, and de-vitrification methods. Sonochemistry, pulsed laser ablation, wet chemical synthesis, sol-gel processing, microwave processing, spray pyrolysis, flame synthesis, inert gas condensation, vapor deposition, and vapor-liquid-solid growth form instead the latter group.