For the mechanical properties of reinforced concrete under high temperature with large deterioration, the reliability of reinforced concrete beams have been largely discounted. A calculation of fire resistance based on failure probability is given by this paper. Reinforced concrete beam is usually working with cracks. Since each section with cracks has possibility of destruction, the reliability of the beam is calculated by the minimum value of n crack-sections’ resistance. The plastic zone resistance of concrete under high temperature is considered in this paper. A simple and feasible time-variant model of the resistance of reinforced concrete beams under fire and a reliability index analysis method of reinforced concrete beams under fire has been given. The action of ISO834 temperature rising curve on the reliability index of different specifications of concrete beams at different time is analyzed. The action of main parameters on the reliability index changes with time is shown. The fire resistance considers the failure probability is given. The results show that increase the reinforcement ratio and concrete cover thickness appropriately are effective measures to improve the fire resistance limit of reinforced concrete beams.