The enhancement method of fatigue life and the crack initiate and growth behavior of a holed specimen was investigated by using the 2024 Aluminum alloy and 0.45% Carbon steel. The purpose of present study is to propose a simple technical method for enhancement of fatigue life in a notched specimen. Also, the effect of local plastic deformation by cold work on fatigue crack initiation behavior was examined. This paper presents a basic experimental kinematic cold expansion method by inserting and removing a pin through the specimen hole. The shape of cross-section of pin was a circle or an ellipse. It was shown that the fatigue life of the specimen with the cold-worked hole was longer than that of the specimen with non-cold-worked hole for the case of same stress level in aluminum alloy and carbon steel. Also, the fatigue strength was higher in the case of the cold expanded hole. In this study, a methodology of lengthening of fatigue life of holed specimen is shown. Also, the improvement conditions of fatigue life were significantly affected by shape of pin, local hardening and residual stress conditions. The fatigue life improvement of the damaged component of structures was studied.