Environmentally friendly cellulose nanofiber green composites were newly developed by combining two dispersion-type biodegradable resins: polylactic acid (PLA) and chemically modified starch, and cellulose nanofibers of two kinds. The nanoscale cellulose fibers were prepared by homogenization of wood pulp. The 10–100 nm diameter nanoscale cellulose fibers have a web-like network microstructure. The mixture of dispersion-type biodegradable resin and cellulose nanofibers was dried in an air-circulating oven to make composite preform sheets. Cellulose nanofiber composite samples were fabricated by press-forming of the preform sheets. Their mechanical properties were evaluated using room-temperature tensile tests. The composite composed of PLA-based resin and highly homogenized cellulose nanofibers showed higher mechanical properties than those of starch-based resin and coarse cellulose fibers. It is suggested that coarse cellulose fibers act as a defect, resulting in low mechanical properties. Maximum tensile strength reaches approximately 90 MPa at fiber weight contents of 60% by weight. This mechanical property is comparable to that of conventional glass-fiber-reinforced plastics.