As a special hot-work progress, artillery shooting test was put in practice, and rotating band specimen of Cu-4 Mass%Zn alloy was prepared. The mesostructure and microstructure evolution of the alloy under instantaneous extrusion and high speed friction were observed by optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Severe plastic deformation (SPD) and dynamic recrystallization phenomena were researched. The analysis results are as follows. At the beginning of SPD, under the instantaneous compression, the surface layer of alloy became fibrous tissue with the phenomena of work-hardening. With the plastic deformation continue, temperature of alloy arising rapidly under the high speed friction. Recrystallization occurs within the outermost part of fibrous tissue due to heating, so subgrains gradually become homogeneous equiaxed grains. In addition, SPD has little effect on the inner tissue, which is full of equiaxed grains still. Between equiaxed grains and fibrous tissue, there are many oblique strip grains which formed by radial extrusion stress , tangential slip stress and axial sliding stress .