Railway turnout, an integrated mechatronics equipment of track technology, is one of key equipments that control the running speed of high-speed railway. During the conversion of turnout, the friction, inclusion of foreign matter and deficient displacement of conversion caused by its own structural characteristics may lead to severe wheel/rail impact. In order to study the influence of conversion deviation on safety and comfort of a train during passing the turnout, train/turnout dynamic model was applied. Taking No.18 turnout on a Passenger Dedicated Line (PDL) with 350km/h as a case study, when the train passed it, the influences of its deficient displacement and inclusion of foreign matter on the following dynamic responses were studied, i.e. wheel load distribution, wheel flange force, dynamic stress of rail, wheel unloading rate, derailment coefficient, as well as the lateral displacements of switch rail and nose rail, etc. Result shows that: (1) the deficient displacement and the inclusion of foreign matter will severely influence the normal operation of the turnout, so the safety and comfort during the train passing through turnout may be affected; (2) During the conversion of turnout, its deficient displacement should be controlled properly, and the foreign matter should be removed during routine maintenance, moreover, a reliable detection system should be set.