Hydraulic concrete is a versatile and most popular construction material. Its long-term performance depends on the interactions with the service condition, in which the penetration of deleterious substances is highly significant. Based on the practical application environments of hydraulic concrete, this paper reviews the mechanism and research achievement from the freeze-thaw cycle, concrete carbonization, sea water corrosion, wear abrasion, cavitations damage of hydraulic structure. This is followed by a discussion on various experiments in an attempt to improve the concrete durability, which is relevant to each mechanism of deterioration. Finally, the measures to enhance durability are put forward as a prospect for future hydraulic engineering.