In order to produce paper from agricultural residues such as wheat straw, it is necessary to delignify the wheat straw. Ethanol cooking is a novel process for the fractionation of biomass components. This study evaluated the effectiveness of sulphate acid catalyzed ethanol pulping on pulp yield, chemical composition of wheat straw, strength properties of the resulted paper sheet. The raw wheat straws, which were impregnated with 1.0% sulphate acid for about 12 h at room temperature, were subjected to ethanol cooking. The results showed that total pulp yield and kappa number decreases while screened pulp yield and brightness increases as the cooking severity increases. The optimal conditions of pulping were determined. Under the optimal condition, the screened pulp yield was up to 55.4%, with the kappa number of 66.35, brightness of 16.1 SBD, and the maximum paper sheet strength.