The purpose of this paper is to present exact solutions for the free vibration of symmetrically laminated composite beams. The present analysis includes the first shear deformation theory and the rotary inertia. The analytical solutions take into account the thermal effect on the free vibration characteristics of the composite beams. In particular, the aim of this work is to derive the exact closed-form characteristic equations for common boundary conditions. The different parameters that could affect the natural frequencies are included as factors (aspect ratio, thermal load-to-shear coefficient, ply orientation) to better perform dynamic analysis to have a good understanding of dynamic behavior of composite beams. In order to derive the governing set of equations of motion, the Hamilton’s principle is used. The system of ordinary differential equations of the laminated beams is then solved and the natural frequencies’ equations are obtained analytically for different boundary conditions. Numerical results are presented to show the influence of temperature rise, aspect ratio, boundary conditions and ply orientation on the natural frequencies of composite beams.