Titania nanotube (NT) arrays with a length of 550nm were fabricated on the flat titanium substrate by anodization. The microstructure was identified by scanning electron microscope. The composition has been investigated with X-ray photoelectron microscopy. It also showed that, as compared with the flat surface, the density of Ti-OH groups on the NT surface has been increased. However, according to the contact angle goniometer, the hydrophilicity of the NT surface becomes worse than that of the flat surface. In addition, surface roughness was investigated by non-contact atomic force microscope. It demonstrated that the nano-roughness of NT arrays has been increased. More important is the relationship between contact angle and roughness factor have been analyzed based on the modified Young’s equation. These results indicate that the anodized NT structures may have provided an optimal surface roughness for promoting the bioactivity.