This paper presents a preliminary exploration in tribological property and dynamic elastic/plastic behavior of cement composite material at micro- and nano- scale. Pastes were prepared by pure cement clinker with water-to-cement ratio of 0.3 and 0.4. For comparison, a polymer-based clinker composite was also introduced. Nano-scratch test was carried out to study the scratch process. Different constituents were identified by penetration depth value. Based on this identification, the coefficient of friction and elastic deformation status were analyzed. Substrate effect was found when refers to the coefficient of friction of hard clinker particles embedded in soft matrix. An H/E ratio dependent elastic/plastic behavior was also revealed for cement composite. The results confirm the nano-scratch test as a promising method for cement composite investigation; however, some important attributes of this type of material, including the complexity of multi-phase structure and the viscous effect, need to be taken into account in experimental analysis and practical application.