The aim of this study was to evaluate the osteoconductive properties of synthetic porous hydroxyapatite prepared by low-temperature microwave processing OssaBase® HA (SPHA) in comparison with biological apatite, non-sintered deproteinized bovine bone Bio-Oss® (DBB). The materials were implanted into the bone sockets of the tibia of Beagle dogs for 3 and 6 months. The bone response to granules of the materials of similar sizes was compared. Histological analysis of the specimens with histomorphometry was performed at different times after in vivo implantation. Based on the histological analysis, the level of bone formation in the spaces between the implanted granules and through the interconnected pores of both implanted materials within a cortical region was significantly higher (bone area ingrowth 72–85%) than within a cancellous bone site (bone area ingrowth 16–28%) at three and six months after implantation. According to our study, the bioactive and osteoconductive properties (bone implant contact and bone area ingrown) of the synthetic porous hydroxyapatite are very high and comparable with the biological apatite, non-sintered deproteinized bovine bone. The favourable influence of the high specific surface area and carbonate content of the synthetic, porous hydroxyapatite on bone formation was confirmed.