The mechanical property of porous pure titanium (Ti) scaffold with high porosity might become poorer than that of natural bone. In this study, new Ti-based biocompatible composites were developed to simultaneously meet the requirements of low elastic modulus and appropriate strength for implant materials when they are scaffolded into a porous structure. The nanoscale particulate-reinforced Ti-based composites with different concentrations of oxide particles such as SiO2 and ZrO2 were prepared using a powder metallurgical method. The strengths of the new nanoscale particulate-reinforced titanium composites were found to be significantly higher than that of pure Ti. Cell culture results revealed that the nanoscale particulate-reinforced titanium composites showed excellent biocompatibility and cell adhesion. Human SaOS2 osteoblast-like cells grew and spread well on the surfaces of the new titanium composites. The nanoscale SiO2 and ZrO2 particulate-reinforced titanium composites are promising materials that have great potential for use as an orthopedic implant material.