Dry-sliding-wear behavior of ultra-fine grained 6061 Al alloy and AZ61 Mg alloy was investigated. The accumulative roll bonding (ARB) and the equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) processes were employed to obtain refined microstructures in the Al and Mg alloys, respectively. Pin-on-disk wear tests of the processed alloys were carried out with various applied load against a 304 stainless steel counterpart. In spite of the increased hardness and strength, wear resistance of the ultra-fine grained 6061 Al alloy was lower than that of the coarse-grained starting alloy. The strength and wear resistance of the ECAP processed AZ61 Mg alloy did not change appreciably despite the refined microstructure. Recrystallization was found to occur during the ECAP process of the Mg alloy. Worn surfaces and cross-sections of the wear-tested specimens were examined to investigate the wear mechanism of the ultra-fine grained Al and Mg alloys.