Various microstructure models for Nb-bearing steels were tested under industrial strip rolling conditions to establish a relationship between grain size and toughness in Ti-Nb-V microalloyed steels. For similar Nb contents, microstructure models for Nb steels were found to adequately describe recrystallisation kinetics in more complex Ti-Nb-V steels. For thick-walled linepipe (11.6mm), a minimum of 0.04%Nb is required to achieve adequate toughness. Retained strain was the dominant processing parameter factor affecting ferrite grain size. The predicted minimum amount of retained strain after the last pass required for sufficient grain refinement concurred with laboratory simulation results. For the rolling schedules investigated, metadynamic recrystallisation was predicted to occur during roughing, whilst static recrystallisation was predominant during finishing.