In this paper, the formula of material removal rate (MRR) in wafer rotation grinding process is deduced based on kinematics. The main effect on MRR of the grit size and the process parameters, including the rotational speed of the cup grinding wheel, the down feed rate of the grinding wheel spindle and the rotational speed of the chuck table, is both theoretically and experimentally investigated. The influence on MRR of the cup wheel grinding status, the geometric dimension of the cup-grinding wheel, the rigidity of the grinding machine and the coolant is also analyzed. The investigating results show that, the increase of the grit size and the down feed rate of the cup grinding wheel results in great increase of the MRR; the MRR increases as the rotational speed of the cup wheel increases whereas the MRR reduces and the ground surface becomes bad due to size effect if the rotational speed of the cup wheel is overlarge; in normal grinding, the MRR decreases as the rotational speed of the chuck table increases. The results provide a theoretical basis to improve grinding efficiency, reduce grinding cost and select the proper parameters of grinding process.