STAVAX ESR（S-136）is a type of high stainless steel, used in precision mould widely . It has fine anticorrosion, polishing-alike, wearable，good process capacity and quench stability. To obtain the smooth surface of STAVAX ESR, the material removal mechanism in the paper is discussed. The experiment is processed on the ultra-precision plane polishing machine (Nanopoli-100). The experiment processes are as follows. Rough lapping and Ultra-precision lapping: the material of lapping pads is cast iron. #1000Al203 (10wt%) abrasive powders are used in rough lapping. Finally, surface roughness is 62nm. In ultra-precision lapping, abrasive powders are for #4000Al203（10wt%）. Removal rate is 1nm with linear velocity 8.6m/min, pressure 3.65MPa. After 4000 rounds, surface roughness is 35nm.Ultra precision polishing: The super smooth surfaces of STAVAX ESR（S-136）with 5nm roughness have been obtained by adopting SiO2(> 30wt%) slurry and soft tin polisher in the experiment.