The nano-scale precipitate microstructures and properties of age-hardenable aluminum alloys such as Al-Cu, Al-Mg-Si and Al-Zn-Mg alloys were investigated using conventional electrical resistivity and hardness measurements, TEM and 3D-AP techniques. To increase mechanical strength and ductility of the alloys nano-scale precipitates were effectively controlled by applying new type heat treatments and microalloying elements. In the initial stage of phase decomposition of the alloys containing microalloying elements several types of nanoclusters were formed and distinctly detected by the 3D-AP technique. These nanoclusters greatly affect the nucleation of the subsequent precipitates and resultantly mechanical properties. In Al-Mg-Si and Al-Zn-Mg alloys complicated two-step aging behaviors were found to be originated in the positive or negative effect of the nanoclusters with different structures.