In this paper, we investigated the Raman scattering and photoluminescence of Zn1-xMnxO nanowires synthesized by the vapor phase growth. The changes of E2(High) and A1(LO) phonon frequency in Raman spectra indicate that the tensile stress increases while the free carrier concentration decreases with the increase of manganese. The Raman spectra exited by the different lasers exhibit the quantum confinement effect of Zn1-xMnxO nanowires. The photoluminescence spectra reveal that the near band emission is affected by the content of manganese obviously. The values of IUV/G decrease distinctly with the manganese increase also demonstrate that more stress introduced with the more substitution of Mn for Zn.