Effects of microstructural parameters on fatigue resistance (σFL) of the steel tire cords have been investigated experimentally from microscopic points of view. At first, microstructural parameters depending on carbon content have been identified by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The fatigue resistance of the steel tire cords depending on carbon content has been measured by using the Hunter rotating beam tester under the bending stress of 900 to 1500 MPa. The fatigue resistance was improved with increasing the carbon content from 0.7, 0.8 to 0.9 wt. % C, due to variations of microstructural parameters, such as lamellar spacing (λp), cementite thickness (tc), and volume fraction (Vc) of cementite. As the carbon content increased, the lamellar spacing and the cementite thickness decreased, while the volume fraction of cementites increased. The effects of microstructure on fatigue resistance have been discussed in terms of the microstructural parameters mentioned above.