Nitriding of titanium was achieved in a vacuum of ~2×10-2 Pa by applying intense pulsed ion beam (IPIB) irradiation. Various phases including ‘pure’ nitrides (e.g. Ti2N, TiN) as well as carbonitrides (e.g. TiC0.3N0.7) were found on the IPIB-irradiated surfaces that depended on the ion beam intensity, shot number, and sample position with respect to the ion beam axis. It was found that the nitrides were preferably produced at moderate beam intensity by which the nitriding depth increased greatly with multi-shot irradiation. No or less nitrides were produced under irradiation of very high intensity or less number of shots. It is demonstrated that the IPIB nitriding process is very efficient even in vacuum where the residual N2 can readily react with melted Ti surfaces under IPIB irradiation. The origin of incorporated C in the nitrides is mainly attributed to the anode material of ion diode used in the IPIB apparatus.