The pollutants in urban stormwater runoff, which lead to non-point source contamination of water environment around cities, are of great concern. Lignocellulose fiber filters have potential to treat urban stormwater runoff because they are cheap and environmentally friendly, and can effectively remove particulate pollutants. However, the fiber filters alone cannot sufficiently remove soluble pollutants including heavy metals, nitrogen compounds, and phosphate. In this study, techniques for chemical modification of lignocellulose fiber filter were implemented to enhance the treatment efficiency of soluble pollutants in urban stormwater runoff. Using these chemically modified fiber filters together with polymer filter media, a new treatment device was examined to control the pollutants in first flush of stormwater. The results indicated that the filters incorporated into the treatment unit allow the control of urban stormwater runoff with minimal cost and high efficiency.